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DTD Handbook

Handbook for Damage Tolerant Design

  • DTDHandbook
    • About
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    • Contributors
    • PDF Versions
    • Related Links
    • Sections
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Fundamentals of Damage Tolerance
      • 3. Damage Size Characterizations
      • 4. Residual Strength
        • 0. Residual Strength
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Failure Criteria
        • 3. Residual Strength Capability
        • 4. Single Load Path Structure
        • 5. Built-Up Structures
        • 6. References
      • 5. Analysis Of Damage Growth
      • 6. Examples of Damage Tolerant Analyses
      • 7. Damage Tolerance Testing
      • 8. Force Management and Sustainment Engineering
      • 9. Structural Repairs
      • 10. Guidelines for Damage Tolerance Design and Fracture Control Planning
      • 11. Summary of Stress Intensity Factor Information
    • Examples

Section 7.6. References

P.R. Abelkis (1980).  “Effect of Transport Aircraft Wing Loads Spectrum Variation on Crack Growth”.  Effect of Load Spectrum Variables on Fatigue Crack Initiation and Propagation.
D.F. Bryan and J.M. Potter (Eds.).  ASTM STP 714, pp. 78-134.  Also see AFFDL-TR-78-134 (1978, November).

ASTM, 2001 Annual Book of Standards.

ASTM Subcritical Crack Growth Subcommittee E24.04 Internal Minutes and Stress-Corrosion Cracking Round-Robin Documentation (1974-1975).

A.P. Berens and P.W. Hovey (1981, December).  “Evaluation of NDE Reliability Characterization”.  AFWAL-TR-81-4160 (Vol. 1), Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories.

R.G. Boeman (1991).  “Interlaminar Deformations on the Cylindrical Surface of a Hole in Laminated Composites: An Experimental Study, Center for Composite Materials and Structures Report 91-07”.  Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA

T.R. Brussat, S.T. Chiu, and M. Creager (1977, December).  “Flaw Growth in Complex Structures”.  AFFDL-TR-77-79 (Vols. 1, 2 and 3), Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory.

R.T. Bubsey, D.M. Fisher, M.H. Jones, and J.E. Srawley (1973).  “Compliance Measurements, Chapter 4”.  Experimental Techniques in Fracture Mechanics, 1.  A.S. Kobayashi (Ed.).  Society for Exp. Stress Analysis, pp. 76-95.

J.B. Chang, J.H. Stolpestad, M. Shinozuka, and R. Vaicaitis (1978, March).  “Improved Methods for Predicting Spectrum Loading Effects – Phase I Report (Vols. 1 and 2).  AFFDL-TR-79-3036, Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory.

J.B. Chang (1981).  “Round-Robin Crack Growth Predictions on Center-Cracked Tension Specimens Under Random Spectrum Loading”.  Methods and Models for Predicting Fatigue Crack Growth Under Random Loading.  J.B. Chang and C.M. Hudson (Eds.).  ASTM STP 748, pp. 3-40.

J.B. Chang and C.M. Hudson (Eds.) (1981).  “Methods and Models for Predicting Fatigue Crack Growth Under Random Loading”.  ASTM STP 748.

J.B. Chang, R.M. Engle, and J. Stolpestad (1981). “ Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior and Life Predictions for 2219-T851 Aluminum Subjected to Variable-Amplitude Loadings”.  Fracture Mechanics: Thirteenth Conference.  R. Roberts (Ed.). ASTM STP 743, pp. 3-27.

M. Creager and A.W. Sommers (1977, November).  “Development of a Crack Growth Rate Test for Quality Control”.  AFML-TR-77-193, Air Force Materials Laboratory.

T.W. Crooker, S.J. Gill, G.R. Yoder, and F.D. Bogar (1982, April).  “Development of a Navy Standard Test Method for Fatigue Crack Growth Rates in Marine Environments”.  Presented at the ASTM Symposium on Environment-Sensitive Fracture: Evaluation and Comparison of Test Methods, held at the National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland.

D.S. Dawicke and M.A. Sutton (1993, September).  “Crack Tip Opening Angle Measurements and Crack Tunneling Under Stable Tearing in Thin Sheet 2024-T3 Aluminum Alloy”.  NASA CR-191523.

D.S. Dawicke (1997).  “Residual Strength Predictions using a Crack Tip Opening Angle Criterion”.  Proceedings of the FAA-NASA Symposium on the Continued Airworthiness of Aircraft Structures.  DOT/FAA/AR-92/2, pp.555-566.

D.S. Dawicke, J.C. Newman, Jr., J.H. Starnes, Jr., C.A. Rose, R.D. Youn; and B.R. Seshadri (1999, September).  “Residual Strength Analysis Methodology: Laboratory Coupons to Structural Components”.  Third Joint FAA/DoD/NASA Conference on Aging Aircraft, Albuquerque, NM.  http://techreports.larc.nasa.gov/ltrs/PDF/1999/mtg/NASA-99-3jcaa-dsd.pdf

H.D. Dill, C.R. Saff, and J.M. Potter (1980).  “Effects of Fighter Attack Spectrum on Crack Growth”.  Effect of Load Spectrum Variables on Fatigue Crack Initiation and Propagation.
D.F. Bryan and J.M. Potter (Eds.).  ASTM STP 714, pp. 205-217.  Also see AFFDL-TR-76-112 (1977, March).

P.R. Edwards, et al. (1981, October).  “Fatigue Test Methodology”.  AGARD-LS-118.  North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development.

J.S. Epstein and M.S. Dadkah (1993).  “Moiré Interferometry in Fracture Research”.  J.S. Epstein (Ed.).  Experimental Techniques in Fracture, pp. 427-508.

A.F. Grandt, Jr. and G.M. Sinclair (1972).  “The Stress-Intensity Factors for Surface Cracks in Bending”.  Stress Analysis and Growth of Cracks Part 1, ASTM STP 513, pp. 37-58.

A.F. Grandt, Jr. and T.D. Hinnerichs (1974, September).  “Stress-Intensity Factor Measurements for Flawed Fastener Holes”.  Proceedings of the Army Symposium on Solid Mechanics, 1974: The Role of Mechanics in Design – Structural Joints.  AMMRC MC 74-8, Army Materials and Mechanics Research Center, pp. 161-176.

S.J. Hudak, Jr., A. Sexena, R.J. Bucci, and R.C. Malcolm (1978).  "Development of Standard Methods of Testing and Analyzing Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Data - Final Report".  AFML TR-78-40.  Air Force Materials Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio.

G.R. Irwin (1960, August).  “Plastic Zone Near a Crack and Fracture Toughness”.  Proceedings Seventh Sagamore Ordnance Materials Research Conference, MET E661-611/F.

L.A. James and W.E. Anderson (1969, April).  “A Simple Experimental Procedure for Stress Intensity Factor Calibration”.  Journal of Engineering Fracture Mechanics (Vol. 1), pp. 565-568.

JSSG-2006 (1998, October).  “Joint Service Specification Guide, Aircraft Structures”.  Department of Defense.

H.W. Kiu and J.S. Ke (1975).  “Moiré Method, Chapter 4”.  Experimental Techniques in Fracture Mechanics, 2.  A.S. Kobayashi (Ed.).  Society for Exp. Stress Analysis, pp. 111-165.

A.S. Kobayashi (1973).  “Photoelasticity Techniques, Chapter 6”.  Experimental Techniques in Fracture Mechanics, 1.  A.S. Kobayashi (Ed.).  Society for Exp. Stress Analysis, pp. 126-145.

G.E. Lambert and D.F. Bryan (1978, November).  “The Influence of Fleet Variability on Crack Growth Tracking Procedures for Transport/Bomber Aircraft”.  AFFDL-TR-78-158, Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory.

H. Liebowitz (1974, January).  “Fracture Mechanics of Aircraft Structures”.  AGARD-AG-176, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development.

A.F. Liu and J.C. Ekvall (1976).  “Material Toughness and Residual Strength of Damage Tolerant Aircraft Structure”.  Damage Tolerance in Aircraft Structures.  ASTM STP 486, pp. 98-121.

D.E. McCabe (Ed.) (1973).  “Fracture Toughness Evaluation by R-Curve Method”. 
ASTM STP 527.

H. Mindlin and R.W. Landgraf (Eds.) (1976).  “Use of Computers in the Fatigue Laboratory”.  ASTM STP 613.

D.H. Mollenhauer (1997).  “Interlaminar Deformation at a Hole in Laminated Composites:  A Detailed Experimental Investigation Using Moiré Interferometry”.  Ph.D. Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA.

D. Post, B. Han, and P. Ifju (2000).  “Moiré Methods for Engineering and Science – Moiré Interferometry and Shadow Moiré ”.  P.K. Rastogi (Ed.).  Photomechanics, Topics Appl. Phys. 77, pp.151-196.

D.L. Potter (1982).  “Durability and Damage Tolerance Behavior of Adhesively Bonded Primary Structure”.  Design of Fatigue and Fracture Resistant Structures.  P.R. Abelkis and C.M. Hudson (Eds.). ASTM STP 761, pp. 373-407.

P.K. Rastogi (Ed.) (2000).  “Photomechanics”.  Topics Appl. Phys., 77.

J.L. Rudd, T.R. Brussat, S.T. Chiu, and M. Creager (1982).  “Experimental Evaluation of Initial Flaw Criticality and Analysis Methods for Damage Tolerant Air Force Aircraft”.  Design of Fatigue and Fracture Resistant Structures.  P.R. Abelkis and C.M. Hudson (Eds.).  ASTM STP 761,
pp. 152-171.

C.R. Saff and M.S. Rosenfeld (1982).  “Load-Environment Interaction Effects on Crack Growth in Landing Gear Steel”.  Design of Fatigue and Fracture Resistant Structures.  P.R. Abelkis and C.M. Hudson (Eds.).  ASTM STP 761, pp. 234-252.

D.A. Skinn, J.P. Gallagher, A.P. Berens, P.D. Huber, and J. Smith (1994). Damage Tolerant Design (Data) Handbook. WL-TR-94-4052.  Wright Laboratory, Air Force Materiel Command, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio.

C.W. Smith (1975).  “Use of Three-Dimensional Photoelasticity and Progress Related Areas, Chapter 1”.  Experimental Techniques in Fracture Mechanics, 2.  A.S. Kobayashi (Ed.).  Society for Exp. Stress Analysis, pp. 3-58.

T. Swift (1971).  “Development of the Fail-Safe Design Features of the DC-10”.  Damage Tolerance in Aircraft Structures.  ASTM STP 486, pp. 164-214.

T. Swift and D.Y. Wang (1970).  “Damage Tolerant Design-Analysis Methods and Test Verification of Fuselage Structure”.  Air Force Conference on Fatigue and Fracture, 1969.  AFFDL-TR-70-144, Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory, pp. 653-683.

TECH, Inc. (2001)  Website: www.techok.com

R.M. Verette, M.M. Ratwani, and D.P. Wilhem (1973, May; 1977, August).  “Development and Evaluation of Methods of Plane Stress Fracture Analysis”.  AFFDL-TR-73-42, Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Part 1 and Part 2, Vol. 1.

Vishay Measurements Group, Inc. (2001).  Website: www.measurementsgroup.com

D.Y. Wang and D.E. McCabe (1976).  “Investigation of R-Curve Using Comparative Tests with Center-Cracked-Tension and Crack-Line-Wedge-Loaded Specimens”.  Mechanics of Crack Growth.  ASTM STP 590, pp. 169-193.

R.P. Wei and S.R. Novak (1982, April).  “Interlaboratory Evaluation of KIscc Measurement Procedures for Steels – A Summary”.  Presented at the ASTM Symposium on Environment-Sensitive Fracture: Evaluation and Comparison of Test Methods, held at the National Bureau
of Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland.

J.T. Wozumi, T. Spamer, and G.E. Lambert (1980).  “An Engineering Model for Assessing Load Sequence Effects”.  Effect of Load Spectrum Variables on Fatigue Crack Initiation and Propagation.  D.F. Bryan and J.M. Potter (Eds.).  ASTM STP 714, pp. 128-142.

G.R. Yoder, L.A. Cooley, and T.W. Crooker (1981).  “Procedures for Precision Measurement of Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Using Crack-Opening Displacement Techniques”.  Fatigue Crack Growth Measurement and Data Analysis.  S.J. Hudak, Jr. and R.J. Bucci (Eds.).  ASTM STP 738, pp. 85-102.