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DTD Handbook

Handbook for Damage Tolerant Design

  • DTDHandbook
    • About
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    • Contributors
    • PDF Versions
    • Related Links
    • Sections
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Fundamentals of Damage Tolerance
      • 3. Damage Size Characterizations
      • 4. Residual Strength
        • 0. Residual Strength
        • 1. Introduction
        • 2. Failure Criteria
        • 3. Residual Strength Capability
        • 4. Single Load Path Structure
        • 5. Built-Up Structures
        • 6. References
      • 5. Analysis Of Damage Growth
      • 6. Examples of Damage Tolerant Analyses
      • 7. Damage Tolerance Testing
      • 8. Force Management and Sustainment Engineering
      • 9. Structural Repairs
      • 10. Guidelines for Damage Tolerance Design and Fracture Control Planning
      • 11. Summary of Stress Intensity Factor Information
    • Examples

Section 5.6. References

M.R. Achter (1967).  “Effect of Environment on Fatigue Cracks”.  Fatigue Crack Propagation. ASTM STP 415, pp. 181-204.

P.D. Bell and M. Creager (1975).  Crack-Growth Analysis for Arbitrary Spectrum Loading”.  AFFDL-TR-74-129.

F.J. Bradshaw and C. Wheeler (1969).  “Effect of Environment and Frequency on Fatigue Cracks in Aluminum Alloys”.  International Journal of Fracture Mechanics, 5, pp. 255-268.

D. Broek (1972).  Residual Strength and Fatigue-Crack Growth in Two Aluminum Alloy Sheets Down to -75°C”.  National Aerospace Institute, NLR TR-M-72096.

D. Broek (1966).  “Fatigue-Crack Growth; Effect of Sheet Thickness”.  Aircraft Engineering, 38, (11), pp. 31-33.

D. Broek (1963).  The Effect of Sheet Thickness on the Fatigue-Crack Propagation in 2024-T3 Sheet”.  National Aerospace Lab. Report NLR-TR-M-2129, Amsterdam.

B.F. Brown (1968).  “The Application of Fracture Mechanics to Stress Corrosion Cracking”.  Metals and Materials, 2; Metal Reviews, 13, pp. 171-183.

T.R. Brussat (1971).  An Approach to Predicting the Growth to Failure of Fatigue Cracks Subjected to Arbitrary Uniaxial Cyclic Loading, Damage Tolerance in Aircraft Structures”.  ASTM STP 486, American Society for Testing and Materials, pp. 122-143.

J.B. Chang and C.M. Hudson (Eds.) (1981).  Methods and Models for Predicting Fatigue Crack Growth Under Random Loading”.  ASTM STP 748, American Society for Testing and Materials.

H.P. Chu (1972).  “Fracture Characteristics of Titanium Alloys in Air and Seawater Environment”.  Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 4, pp. 107-117.

E.P. Dahlberg (1965).  “Fatigue-Crack Propagation in High Strength 4340 Steel in Humid Air”.  ASM Trans 58, pp. 46-53.

H.D. Dill and C.R. Saff (1977).  “Analysis of Crack Growth Following Compressive Loads Based on Crack Surface Displacements and Contact Analysis”.  Cyclic Stressain and Plastic Deformation Aspects of Fatigue Crack Growth.  ASTM STP 637, American Society for Testing and Materials, pp. 141-152.

H.D. Dill and C.R. Saff (1978, November).  Environment-Load Interaction Effects on Crack Growth”.  AFFDL-TR-78-137, Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory.

D.R. Donaldson and W.E. Anderson (1960).  “Crack-Propagation Behavior of Some Airframe Materials”.  Cranfield Symposium (Vol. II), pp. 375-441.

N.E. Dowling (1972).  “Fatigue Failure Predictions for Complication Stressain Histories”.  Journal of Materials, ASTM, pp. 71-87.

W. Elber (1971),  The Significance of Crack Closure”.  ASTM STP 486, pp. 230-242.

R.M. Engle and J.L. Rudd (1974).  Analysis of Crack Propagation Under Variable-Amplitude Loading Using the Willenborg Retardation Model”.  AIAA Paper No. 74-369.

R.M. Engle, Jr. (1970).  CRACKS, A FORTRAN IV Digital Computer Program for Crack Propagation Analysis”.  AFFDL0TR-70-107, Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory.

F. Erdogan (1967).  Crack-Propagation Theories”.  NASA-CR-901.

R.G. Forman, V.E. Kearney, and R.M. Engle (1967).  “Numerical Analysis of Crack
Propagation in a Cyclic-Loaded Structure”.  Journal Basic Engineering, ASME (Vol. 89),
Series D, pp. 459-464.

J.P. Gallagher (1974a).  A Generalized Development of Yield Zone Models”. 

J.P. Gallagher (1974b).  Fatigue-Crack-Growth Rate Laws Accounting for Stress Ratio Effects”.  ASTM E24-04-04, Report 1.

J.P. Gallagher (1976, November).  “Estimating Fatigue-Crack Lives for Aircraft: Technique.” Experimental Mechanics (Vol. 16), No. 11, pp. 425-433.

J.P. Gallagher and H.D. Stalnaker (1975, September), “Predicting Flight-by-Flight Fatigue Crack Growth Rates”.  Journal of Aircraft, AIAA (Vol. 12), No. 9, pp. 699-705.

J.P. Gallagher and T.F. Hughes (1974).  Influence of the Yield Strength on Overload Affected Fatigue-Crack-Growth Behavior of 4340 Steel”.  AFFDL-TR-74-27.

J.P. Gallagher, H.D. Stalnaker, and J.L. Rudd (1974).  A Spectrum Truncation and Damage Tolerance Study Association with the C-5A Outboard Pylon Aft Truss Lugs.”  AFFDL-TR-74-5.

J.P. Gallagher and R.P. Wei (1972).  “Corrosion Fatigue Crack Propagation Behavior in Steels”.  Corrosion Fatigue: Chemistry, Mechanisms, and Microstructure.  A.J. McEvily and R.W. Staehle (Eds.), National Association of Corrosion Engineers, pp. 409-423.

F.J. Giessler, S.J. Duell, and R.F. Cook (1981, February).  Handbook of Guidelines for the Development of Design Usage and Environmental Sequences for USAF Aircraft”.  AFWAL-TR-80-3156, Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories.

L.R. Hall and W.L. Engstrom (1974).  Fracture and Fatigue-Crack-Growth Behavior of Surface Flaws Originating at Fastener Holes”.  AFFDL-TR-74-47

A. Hartman (1965).  “On the Effect of Water Vapour and Oxygen on the Propagation of Fatigue Cracks in an Aluminum Alloy”.  International Journal of Fracture Mechanics, 1, pp. 167-188.

P. Hartman and J. Schijve (1970).  “The Effects of Environment and Frequency on the Crack-Propagation Laws for Macrofatigue Cracks”.  Engineering Fracture Mechanics 1, pp. 615-631

JSSG-2006 (1998, October).  “Joint Service Specification Guide, Aircraft Structures”.  Department of Defense.

R. Lachnaud (1965).  “Fatigue Strength and Crack Propagation in AV2GN Alloy as a Function of Temperature and Frequency”.  Current Aeronautical Fatigue Problems.  J. Schijve (Ed.).  Pergamon, pp. 77-102.

D.A. Meyn (1971).  “Frequency and Amplitude Effects on Corrosion Fatigue Cracks in a Titanium Alloy”.  Materials Trans. 2, pp. 853-865.

D.A. Meyn (1968).  “The Nature of Fatigue-Crack Propagation in Air and Vacuum for 2024 Aluminum”.  ASM Trans. 61, pp. 52-61.

MIL-HDBK-5H (1998, December).  Military Handbook, Metallic Materials and Elements for Aerospace Vehicle Structures.

M.S. Miller and J.P. Gallagher (1981).  “An Analysis of Several Fatigue Crack Growth Rate (FCGR) Descriptions”.  Fatigue Crack Growth Measurement and Data Analysis.  S.J. Hudak, Jr. and R.J. Bucci (Eds.).  ASTM STP 738, American Society for Testing and Materials, pp. 205-251.

L. Mueller, et al. (1981, October).  ASTM Task Group E24-04.04 presentations during ASTM Committee Week held in St. Louis, MO.

P.C. Paris (1964).  “The Fracture Mechanics Approach to Fatigue, Fatigue – An Interdisciplinary Approach”.  Syracuse University Press, pp. 107-132.

R.M.N. Pelloux (1970).  Review of Theories and Laws of Fatigue-Crack Propagation”.  AFFDL-TR-70-144, pp. 409-416.

D.E. Piper, S.H. Smith, and R.V. Carter (1968).  “Corrosion Fatigue and Stress Corrosion Cracking in Aqueous Environment”.  Metals Engineering Quarterly, 8, pp. 3.

T.R. Porter (1972).  “Method of Analysis and Prediction for Variable Amplitude Fatigue-Crack Growth”.  Engineering Fracture Mechanics 4.

J.M. Potter, J.P. Gallagher, and H.D. Stalnaker (1974).  The Effect of Spectrum Variations
on the Fatigue Behavior of Notched Structures Representing F-4E/S Wing Stations

R.D. Raithby and M.E. Bibb (1961).  Propagation of Fatigue Cracks in Wide Unstiffened Aluminum Alloy Sheet”.  R.A.E. TN Structures 305.

J.R. Rice and P.C. Paris (Eds.) (1976).  Mechanics of Crack Growth”.  ASTM STP 590, American Society for Testing and Materials.

C.R. Saff (1980, December).  Environment-Load Interaction Effects on Crack Growth in Landing Gear Steels”.  NADC-79095-60.  Naval Air Development Center, Warminister, PA.

J. Schijve (1972).  The Accumulation of Fatigue Damage in Aircraft Materials and Structures”.  AGARDograph No. 157.

J. Schijve (1970).  “Cumulative Damage Problems in Aircraft Structures and Materials”.  The Aeronautical Journal, 74, pp. 517-532.

J. Schijve (1963).  The Analysis of Random Load Time Histories With Relation to Fatigue Tests and Life Calculations”.  Fatigue of Aircraft Structures.  Barrois and Ripley (Eds.), McMillen, pp. 115-149.

J. Schijve and D. Broek (1962).  “Crack Propagation Based on a Gust Spectrum with Variable-Amplitude Loading”.  Aircraft Engineering, 34, pp. 314-316.

J. Schijve and D. Broek (1961).  The Effect of the Frequency on the Propagation of Fatigue Cracks”.  NLR TR-M-72096.  National Aerospace Institute.

J. Schijve and P. DeRijk (1966).  Fatigue-Crack Propagation in 2024-T3 Alclad Sheet Materials of Seven Different Manufacturers”.  NLR TR-M-2162.  National Aerospace Lab.

J. Schijve and P. DeRijk (1963).  The Effect of Temperature and Frequency on Fatigue-Crack Propagation in 2024-T3”.  NLR TR-M-2138.

T.T. Shih and R.P. Wei (1974).  “Load and Environment Interactions in Fatigue-Crack Growth”.  Prospects of Fracture Mechanics, Noordhoff, pp. 237-250.

D.A. Skinn, J.P. Gallagher, A.P. Berens, P.D. Huber, and J. Smith (1994). Damage Tolerant Design (Data) Handbook. WL-TR-94-4052.  Wright Laboratory, Air Force Materiel Command, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio.

S.H. Smith (1974).  Fatigue-Crack-Growth Behavior of C-5A Wing Control Points”  

S.H. Smith, T.R. Porter and W.D. Sump (1968).  Fatigue-Crack Propagation and Fracture Toughness Characteristics of 7079 Aluminum Alloy Sheets and Plates in Three Aged Conditions”.  NASA CR-996.

S.H. Smith, F.A. Simonen, and W.S. Hyler (1975).  C-141 Wing Fatigue Crack Propagation Study”.  Final Report to Warner Robins ALC; BCL Report G-2954-1.

A.M. Sullivan (1972).  “Stress-Corrosion-Crack Velocity in 4340 Steel”.  Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 4, pp. 65-76.

R.L. Tobler, et al. (1974).  Fatigue and Fracture Toughness Testing at Cryogenic Temperatures”.  Report by Cryogenics Division, NB 3.

P.M. Toor (1973).  “A Review of Some Damage Tolerance Design Approaches for Aircraft Structures”.  Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 5, pp. 837-880.

G.M. VanDÿk (1972).  Statistical Load Data Processing”.  Advanced Approaches to Fatigue Evaluation.  NASA SP-309, pp. 565-598.

E.K. Walker (1970).  “The Effect of Stress Ratio During Crack Propagation and Fatigue for 2024-T3 and 7075-T6 Aluminum”.  Effects of Environment and Complex Load History on Fatigue Life.  M.S. Rosenfeld (Ed.).  ASTM STP 462, American Society for Testing and Materials, pp. 1-14.

R.P. Wei (1970).  “Some Aspects of Environment-Enhanced Fatigue-Crack Growth”.  Engineering Fracture Mechanics 1, pp. 633-651.

R.P. Wei and J.D. Landes (1969).  “Correlation Between Sustained Load and Fatigue Crack Growth in High Strength Steels, Materials Research and Standards”.  ASTM, Vol. 9, pp. 25

R.P. Wei, and R.I. Stephens (1976).  Fatigue Crack Growth Under Spectrum Loads”.  ASTM STP 595, American Society for Testing and Materials.

R.P. Wei and T.T. Shih (1974).  “Delay in Fatigue-Crack Growth”.  International Journal Fracture, 16, pp. 77-85.

O.E. Wheeler (1972).  “Spectrum Loading and Crack Growth”.  Journal Basic Engineering, 94D, pp. 181.

J.D. Willenborg, R.M. Engle, and H.A. Wood (1971).  A Crack-Growth Retardation Model Using an Effective Stress Concept”.  AFFDL-TM-71-1 FBR.

H.A. Wood (1974).  “Important Aspects of Crack-Growth Prediction for Aircraft Structural Applications”.  Prospects of Fracture Mechanics.  Shi, VanElast, Broek (Eds.), Noordhoff,
pp. 437-457.

H.A. Wood and T.L. Haglage (1971).  Crack-Propagation Test Results for Variable-Amplitude Spectrum Loading in Surface Flawed D6ac Steel”.  AFFDL-TM FBR 71-2.

H.A. Wood, R.M. Engle, and T.L. Haglage (1971).  The Analysis of Crack Propagation Under Variable-Amplitude Loading in Support of the F-111 Recovery Program”.  AFFDL-TM-71-3 FBR.