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DTD Handbook

Handbook for Damage Tolerant Design

  • DTDHandbook
    • About
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    • Contributors
    • PDF Versions
    • Related Links
    • Sections
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Fundamentals of Damage Tolerance
      • 3. Damage Size Characterizations
        • 0. Damage Size Characterizations
        • 1. NDI Demonstration of Crack Detection Capability
        • 2. Equivalent Initial Quality
        • 3. Proof Test Determinations
        • 4. References
      • 4. Residual Strength
      • 5. Analysis Of Damage Growth
      • 6. Examples of Damage Tolerant Analyses
      • 7. Damage Tolerance Testing
      • 8. Force Management and Sustainment Engineering
      • 9. Structural Repairs
      • 10. Guidelines for Damage Tolerance Design and Fracture Control Planning
      • 11. Summary of Stress Intensity Factor Information
    • Examples

Section 3.4. References

J. Alcott (1994).  “An Investigation of Nondestructive Inspection Equipment: Detecting Hidden Corrosion on USAF Aircraft.”  Materials Evaluation (Vol. 52, No. 1), pp.64-73.

R.E. Alford, R.P. Bell, J.B. Cochran, and D.O. Hammond (1992).  “C-141 WS 405 Risk Assessment.”  WL-TR-92-4045.  Proceedings of the 1991 USAF Structural Integrity Program Conference, San Antonio, Texas.

A.P. Berens and P.W. Hovey (1981, November).  Evaluation of NDE Reliability Characterization.  AFWAL-TR-81-4160.  Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433.

A.P. Berens and P.W. Hovey (1984, April).  Flaw Detection Reliability Criteria, Volume I, Methods and Results,” AFWAL-TR-84-4022.  Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433.

A.P. Berens and P.W. Hovey (1985).  “The Sample Size and Flaw Size Effects in NDI Reliability Experiments.”  Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, (Vol. 4B).  Edited by D.O. Thompson and D.E. Chimenti.  Plenum Press, pp. 1327-1334.

A.P. Berens (1988).  “NDE Reliability Data Analysis.”  ASM Metals Handbook, Volume 17, 9th Edition: Nondestructive Evaluation and Quality Control.  ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, pp. 689-701.

A.P. Berens, P.W. Hovey, and D.A. Skinn (1991, October).  Risk Analysis for Aging Aircraft Fleets.”  WL-TR-91-3066.  Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433.

A.P. Berens (2000, January).  Probability of Detection (POD) Analysis for the Advanced Retirement for Cause (RFC)/Engine Structural Integrity Program (ENSIP) Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) System Development, Volume 1 – POD Development.”  AFRL-ML-WP-TR-2001-4010, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH, 45433.

D.A. Bruce (1998).  “NDI Reliability Estimation from Small Samples and In-Service Experience.”  Airframe Inspection Reliability under Field/Depot Conditions.” RTO Meeting Proceedings 10, NATO, Research and Technology Organization, Neuilly-Sur-Seine Cedex, France.

W.D. Buntin (1971, October).  Concept and Conduct of Proof Test of F-111 Production Aircraft.  Paper presented to the Royal Aeronautical Society, London, England.

W.D. Cowie (1975, April).  Turbine Engine Structural Integrity Program (ENSIP), AIAA.  Journal of Aircraft, (Vol. 12, No. 4).  Special Issue, pp. 366-369.

M.K. Davis (1988).  “Proficiency Evaluation of NDE Personnel Utilizing the Ultrasonic Methodology.”  Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, (Vol. 7B).  Edited by D.O. Thompson and D.E. Chimenti.  Plenum Press, pp. 1777-1789.

C.E. Dumesnil, S.D. Aratki, R.P. Wilson, C.P. Martin, D.J. White, and O.L. Hooks (1977, January).  A-7D ASIP Part I, Damage Tolerance and Fatigue Assessment Program.  Vought Corp., Report No. 2-53440/7R-5928 (Vol. I).

A. Fahr, D. Forsyth, M. Bullock, W. Wallace, A. Ankara, L. Kompotiatis, and H.F.N. Goncalo (1995).  POD Assessment of NDI Procedures Using a Round Robin Test.  AGARD-R-809, NATO Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, Neuilly-Sur-Seine Cedex, France.

A.W. Gunderson (1974, October).  Fracture Mechanics Tests and Analyses of the AEDC APTU Storage Vessel Material.  AFML-TR-74-133.  Air Force Materials Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433.

W.C. Hoppe, N. Schehl, C. Buynak, J.P. Gallagher, and A.P. Berens (2000).  “From Cracks to Corrosion: The Evolution of a Probability of Detection Approach that Quantifies Corrosion Damage in Aging Aircraft.”  2000 USAF Aircraft Structural Integrity Conference Proceedings, San Antonio, Texas.

J.J. Horsley, D.F. Bryan, and J.E. Fuller (1976, February).  B-52D Proof Load Program, Laboratory Crack Growth Tests.  The Boeing Company, Wichita Division, Document No. D3-9700, (Restricted Publication).

P.W. Hovey, W.H. Sproat, and P. Schattle (1989).  “The Test Plan for the Next Air Force
NDI Capability and Reliability Assessment Program.”  Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (Vol. 8B).  Edited by D.O. Thompson and D.E. Chimenti.  Plenum Press, pp. 2213-2220.

JSSG-2006, Joint Service Specification Guide, Aircraft Structures, Department of Defense, 30 October 1998.

J.P. Komorowski, D.S. Forsyth, D.L. Simpson, and R.W. Gould (1998).  “Probability of Detection of Corrosion in Aircraft Structures.”  RTO-MP-10.  RTO Meeting Proceedings 10, Airframe Inspection Reliability under Field/Depot Conditions.  NATO Research and Technology Organization, Neuilly-Sur-Seine Cedex, France.

W.H. Lewis, B.D. Dodd, W.H. Sproat, and J.M. Hamilton (1978).  Reliability of Nondestructive Inspections – Final Report.  Report No. SA-ALC/MEE 76-6-38-1.  United States Air Force, San Antonio Air Logistics Center, Kelly Air Force Base, Texas.

J.W. Lincoln (1985).  “Risk Assessment of an Aging Military Aircraft.”  Journal of Aircraft (Vol. 22, No. 8).

J.W. Lincoln (1997).  “Risk Assessments of Aging Aircraft.”  Proceedings of the First Joint DOD/FAA/NASA Conference on Aging Aircraft, Ogden, UT.

S.D. Manning and J.N. Yang (1987, July).  Advanced Durability Analysis, Volume I – Analytical Methods.”  AFWAL-TR-86-3017.  Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433.

S.D. Manning and J.N. Yang (1989, February).  USAF Durability Design Handbook: Guidelines for the Analysis and Design of Durable Aircraft Structures.”  AFWAL-TR-88-3119.  Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433.

MIL-HDBK-1823 (1999, 30 April).  Department of Defense Handbook, “Nondestructive Evaluation System Reliability Assessment.”

MIL-HDBK-5G (1994, November).  Military Handbook, Metallic Materials and Elements for Aerospace Vehicle Structures (Vol. 1), pp. 3-11.

A.M. Mood (1950).  Introduction to the Theory of Statistics.  McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York.

“Fatigue Crack Growth Computer Program ‘NASA/FLAGRO’, Version 2.03” (1994).  National Aeronautics and Space Administration, JSC-22267A.

Natrella, M.G. (1963), Experimental Statistics, Handbook 91, National Bureau of Standards.

Nondestructive Testing Handbook, Volume Ten, Second Edition, Nondestructive Testing Overview (1996).  Stanley Ness and Charles N. Sherlock, Technical Editors, Patrick O. Moore and Paul M. McIntire, Editors.  American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Inc.

P.F. Packman, S.J. Klima, R. Davies, J. Malpani, J. Moyzis, W. Walker, B.G.W. Yee, and D.P. Johnson (1976).  Reliability of Flaw Detection by Nondestructive Inspection.  ASM Metal Handbook (Vol. 11), 8th Edition.  Metals Park, Ohio, pp. 214-224.

R.E. Pinckert (1976, 26-27 September).  Damage Tolerance Assessment of F-4 Aircraft. 
AIAA-76-904.  Presented at AIAA Aircraft Systems & Technology Meeting, Dallas, Texas.

J.M. Potter (1978).  Advances in Fastener Hole Quality through the Application of Solid Mechanics.  Proceedings of the Army Symposium on Solid Mechanics, Case Studies on Structural Integrity and Reliability.  AMMRC-MS 78-3.  Watertown, MA.

D. Roach (1998, 24-28 March).  “Development of a Corrosion Detection Experiment to Evaluate Conventional and Advanced NDI Techniques.”  41st Sampe Symposium, pp 265-278.

J.L. Rudd and T.D. Gray (1978).  "Quantification of Fastener-Hole Quality."  Journal of Aircraft (Vol. 15, No. 3).

J.L. Rudd and T.D. Gray (1976, September).  Equivalent Initial Quality Method.  AFFDL-TM-76-83-FBE.  Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433.

W.O. Rummel and G.A. Matzkanin (1997).  Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Capabilities Data Book.  Nondestructive Testing Information Analysis Center, (NTIAC), Austin Texas.

C. Salkowski (1993).  “NDT and the Aging Orbiter.”  FAA Inspection Reliability Workshop, Atlantic City, NJ.

F.W. Spencer and D.L. Schurman (1994, March).  “Reliability Assessment at Airline Inspection Facilities, Volume III: Results of an Eddy Current Inspection Reliability Experiment.”  DOT/FAA/CT-92/12, III.  FAA Technical Center, Atlantic City, NJ.

C.F. Tiffany and J.N. Masters (1965).  Applied Fracture Mechanics.  Fracture Toughness Testing and Its Application.  ASTM STP 381.  American Society for Testing and Materials, Baltimore, MD, pp. 249-277.

E.K. Walker, J.C. Ekvall, and J.E. Rhodes (1979).  "Design for Continuing Structural Integrity."  Structural Integrity Technology.  ASME, NY.

White, et al. (1979, May).  Fatigue Life Evaluation of the A-7E Arresting Gear Hook Shank.  Vought Report No. 2-30400/9R-52133, Vought Corporation, Dallas, TX.

B.G.W. Yee, F.H. Chang, J.C. Couchman, G.H. Lemon, and P.F. Packman (1976).  Assessment of NDE Reliability Data.  NASA CR-134991.  National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio.